Top view of bare feet of older woman suffering from hallux valgus

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Hallux valgus, commonly known as a bunion, is a deformity that affects the alignment of the big toe and the first metatarsal bone. While many individuals with mild hallux valgus can manage their symptoms through conservative treatment methods, there are cases where surgical intervention becomes necessary. In this blog post, we will explore the reasons why some patients require surgery for hallux valgus and shed light on the benefits and considerations associated with this approach.

Understanding Hallux Valgus:

Hallux valgus occurs when the big toe gradually deviates towards the other toes, causing the metatarsal bone to protrude at the base of the toe. This misalignment can result in a range of symptoms, including pain, swelling, stiffness, difficulty in finding suitable footwear, and even changes in gait.

Conservative Treatment Methods:

Initially, non-surgical methods are typically recommended to manage hallux valgus. These may include:

  1. Footwear modifications: Wearing shoes with a wide toe box and avoiding high heels can help alleviate discomfort and reduce pressure on the affected area.
  2. Orthotics: Custom-made shoe inserts can help realign the foot and improve stability, reducing pain and slowing down the progression of the deformity.
  3. Physical therapy: Stretching and strengthening exercises can improve joint mobility, alleviate pain, and enhance overall foot function.

Indications for Surgical Intervention:

While conservative treatment options may provide relief for many individuals, surgery may be necessary for the following reasons:

  1. Persistent pain: Some patients experience persistent and debilitating pain despite conservative measures. If pain significantly impacts daily activities and quality of life, surgical intervention may be considered.
  2. Functional impairment: Hallux valgus can cause significant functional limitations, such as difficulty walking or participating in physical activities. When conservative treatments fail to restore normal function, surgery becomes a viable option.
  3. Structural deformity: Severe cases of hallux valgus may involve structural changes in the joint, including arthritis, joint subluxation, or significant bone deformity. Surgery can correct these structural abnormalities, improving joint alignment and function.

Benefits of Surgical Intervention:

  1. Pain relief: Surgery aims to address the underlying cause of pain by realigning the toe joint, reducing pressure, and correcting any associated structural abnormalities.
  2. Improved function: Surgical correction of hallux valgus can enhance foot mechanics, allowing for improved walking, balance, and overall foot function.
  3. Aesthetic improvement: Surgical procedures can also improve the appearance of the foot, restoring a more natural alignment and reducing the prominence of the bunion.
  4. Long-term results: While recovery time varies, surgical intervention for hallux valgus often provides long-term relief, reducing the likelihood of recurrence and the need for further interventions.

Considerations and Risks:

Before opting for surgery, patients should consider certain factors, such as potential risks and complications, recovery time, and the need for post-operative rehabilitation. It is crucial to have a detailed discussion with a qualified foot and ankle surgeon to understand the specific procedure, expected outcomes, and any associated risks.


While conservative treatment methods are typically the first line of defense for managing hallux valgus, surgical intervention becomes necessary for some patients who experience persistent pain, functional impairment, or structural deformity. Surgery can provide pain relief, improve foot function, and enhance the aesthetic appearance of the foot. However, it is important to carefully weigh the benefits and risks, and consult with a medical professional to determine the most suitable treatment approach for each individual case.

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